Carbon-14 is continually formed in nature by the interaction of neutrons with nitrogen-14 in the Earths atmosphere; the neutrons required for this reaction are produced by cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere.
How does carbon-14 get into the atmosphere?
Carbon-14 is continuously generated in the atmosphere by cosmic radiation. Neutrons are ejected from nuclei of the upper atmosphere in collisions with cosmic rays (A). The carbon-14 atoms combine with the oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide (C).
Is carbon-14 produced in the atmosphere?
Carbon-14 is produced in the stratosphere by nuclear reactions of atmospheric nitrogen with thermal neutrons produced naturally by cosmic rays (with the highest production rate 10 to 13 miles above Earths poles), as well as by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 60s.
How does nitrogen-14 become carbon-14?
When the neutron collides, a nitrogen-14 (seven protons, seven neutrons) atom turns into a carbon-14 atom (six protons, eight neutrons) and a hydrogen atom (one proton, zero neutrons). Carbon-14 is radioactive, with a half-life of about 5,700 years.
How is 14C produced in the upper atmosphere?
Carbon-14 is a naturally occurring radionuclide produced in the upper atmosphere by reaction of cosmic ray produced neutrons via 14N (n, p)14C, 14C level in the atmosphere was approximately constant before the human nuclear activity (equilibrium between new generated 14C and removal of 14C due to its radioactive decay)
How is carbon 13 created?
C and 13C are stable, occurring in a natural proportion of approximately 93:1. C is produced by thermal neutrons from cosmic radiation in the upper atmosphere, and is transported down to earth to be absorbed by living biological material.